Ear Training: Summary

Here is an overview of all the notes related to a root including their solfège and sargam syllables. Depending on whether we are talking about scalar or chordal structures, seconds, fourths and sixth may also be referred to as ninths, elevenths and sixteenths.

I recommend you to practice singing any melodic structure you want to learn accompanied by the root, the root and fifth or the basic chords as described in this chapter before practicing them on the instrument.

Beware that all the syllables are relative in nature. If your key is C, do/sa is C. If your key is E, do/sa is E. If you are singing on a chord progression, your do/sa changes from chord to chord.

Also beware of the difference between the harmonic relation of a note to the key, which is what this chapter is about, and the interval as the distance between two notes. In the key of C, the harmonic functions of E and G are the major third and the perfect fifth, but the interval between E and G is a minor third, regardless of the key.

NameScale degreeSolfègeSargam
root, perfect unison1dosa
minor second / minor ninthb2 / b9diri
major second / major ninth2 / 9reri
minor thirdb3riga
major third3miga
perfect fourth/eleventh4 / 11fama
augmented fourth/eleventh, diminished fifth#4 / b5 / #11fima
perfect fifth5sopa
augmented fifth / minor sixth/thirteenth#5 / b6 / b13sidha
major sixth/thirteenth6 / 13ladha
minor seventhb7lini
major seventh7tini